The civil organizations of Rome represented the interests of the nation for the well-being of its citizens, contributing to the political and social organization of the entire territory, with the ideal of building a strong republic with solid participatory foundations.
Civil organizations are organized structures that seek to establish conventions within the social environment, acting as support to the government of the nation.
The common characteristic of this type of institution is that they seek to obtain collective benefits by making concrete social objectives possible, bringing together individuals who share the same purpose and pursue goals with similar purposes.
In Rome, civil organizations acted according to the type of citizenship possessed by the people who made it up. The existing social classes determined what your status was, your rights and duties, as well as the institutions to which you could belong.
There were two types of social classes, the Patricians who owned most of the land, property and influence in political power and the commoners, who had to organize to get some of the basic rights recognized for their citizens.
Civil organizations based the Roman economy on a slave production system, where labor was obtained that was paid for with food, without enjoying any social rights or privileges.
During the time of the Roman Empire, divisions of social groups arose that formed the basis of the institutions and civil organizations of Rome:
- Roman citizens were those born in Rome, people who enjoyed all the privileges according to Roman Law.
- Latinos, were the inhabitants who were in the territory subject to the laws of Latin Law, whose status was inferior to that of the Romans.
- The peregrini, was a term used freely that despite being Romans did not have any degree of citizenship.
- Women, constituted a separate group with rights and duties different from those of their male counterparts.
- Slaves, they were the prisoners of war of the conquered territories, they did not have civil rights, although the freed could get to obtain citizenship.
The social institutions in Rome were based on citizenship, they were divided according to the economic status that a citizen had.
The social class defined the rank that corresponded to him in the army, the exemption from belonging to it and the relationships with other free members of Roman society.
The economy had civil organizations called Collegium which were a type of Roman organization that was governed by its own statutes, where its competence, the performance of its members and the objective of the institution were established.
These institutions used to group citizens voluntarily, according to their needs and characteristics, to demand rights and other privileges.
Republican Institutions in Rome
In Rome there were a series of representative government institutions, some were the exclusive competence of the patricians, which evolved due to the intervention of the commoners, who by the fact of paying taxes and serving in the army were acquiring more participation.
The main institutions were the following:
- The elections: Assemblies of Roman citizens who had the possibility to express their opinion and vote to elect representatives of public office or the participation of the nation in the conquest of new territories.
- The magistracies: Political posts with well-defined functions, among which the collegiate and the elected stood out. They were made up of political figures such as the Consul, Praetor, Aedile, Quaestor, the Censors and the Tribune of the plebs.
- The Senate: It was the most important institution of civil organizations in Rome. Its operation was that of a superior council that was in charge of advising and directing the legislation of the acting magistrates.He could determine the functions of public officials, establish laws, and direct the foreign policy of the nation.The Roman Senate had some 300 life members, all with political careers as former magistrates, who stood out for their education, fortune, power, and social position.